For the JAMA Psychiatry study, researchers used the DSM-IVdefinition laid out by the American Psychiatric Association in 1994. This definition combines factors of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence like:
- Drinking interfering with home, family, or job responsibilities
- Drinking increasing chances of danger or injury
- Withdrawal symptoms when coming down from intoxication
- An inability to stop drinking
Of 11 criteria given, the presence of two or more indicates an alcohol use disorder. Six or more indicates a severe alcohol use disorder.